Peru encyclopedia of the nations

Because the Peruvian population is so young—with The U. State Department's Human Rights Report estimates the workforce to number 8. Official unemployment, according to the International Labor Organization, was 10 percent inbut even the government admits that the statistics are misleading. An estimated 60 percent of the population is underemployed. The workforce remains largely unskilled, with many skilled laborers leaving the country to search for work abroad.

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An estimated 1 million Peruvians now live abroad, the majority of them in the United States or Spain. State Department estimates that more than half the work-force earns less than the minimum wage. The government began dismantling labor laws in the early s as part of the efforts to streamline the economy, open the country to foreign investment, and privatize state-run industries. As a result, labor union activity has declined substantially with the Construction Workers Union and Teachers Union the only 2 organizations retaining a nationwide profile.

Strikes called in and had little national importance. Under current laws, strikes not approved by the government are illegal. The labor law made striking and collective bargaining difficult. While collective bargaining is legal, the law says it can only be carried out if it is "in harmony with broader social objectives. In addition to government changes to the laws, the Maoist Shining Path guerrillas also made it a policy to infiltrate unions or create their own unions as a way of weakening companies and whole economic sectors.

While the Shining Path's leadership was jailed in and the group has all but disappeared, the stigma it created for unions remains.

peru encyclopedia of the nations

Toggle navigation. Also read article about Peru from Wikipedia. User Contributions: 1. I think the opportunities in Peru are not the same for everyone because there is still extreme poverty, especially in more remote places, such as in parts of the mountains.Peru has been politically unstable since independence was declared in and formally granted by Spain 3 years later. Since independence Peru has had presidents, 18 percent of whom were democratically elected.

The remaining presidents came to power through military coups 24 percentreplaced a sitting president 21 percentwere named by Congress 18 percentwere delegated 16 percentor formed part of a commission of notables 3 percent.

Political parties have generally been tied to 1 man, representing the traditional caudillo strongman model that is present in many Latin American countries. When back-to-back democratic elections are held, a rarity in Peru, the ruling party has never held on to the presidency.

Peru - Politics, government, and taxation

It continues to have a strong presence, despite decades of political persecution and one disastrous term in power. The party's founder, Haya de la Torre, was exiled for years and never reached the presidency. He received the most votes in the election, but a military junta stepped in after the election and took power for a year. Haya de la Torre lost by a slim margin in the election held in late He ended his term in with 7, percent inflation and a bankrupt treasury. An obscure math professor, Fujimori emerged from obscurity in to win the presidency.

Peruvians were tired of "politics as usual" and gambled on an outsider. With no political experience or party, Fujimori turned to the armed forces and used them to consolidate power. When Congress balked at his plans for sweeping economic reforms and harsh laws to control a growing subversive threat, Fujimori and the military took complete control, closing Congress and the courts in in what is known as a "self-coup.

He ran again in and was overwhelmingly re-elected because he had tamed inflation and his government had arrested the leadership of 2 violent subversive groups. Although he came to power as an outsider, Fujimori rapidly developed the qualities and policies of Peru's traditional caudillos, concentrating power in the executive and bypassing Congress and the judicial branch whenever necessary.

Unsatisfied with only 2 terms, Fujimori and his allies tinkered with the constitution and decided he could run for a third term in He ran and won, although the elections were labeled fraudulent by local and international observers.

Pressure from opposition parties calling for democracy and evidence of widespread corruption, however, never allowed Fujimori to consolidate his third term. He resigned in November and fled to Japan, his parents' homeland.

Fujimori's rapid decline set the stage for new elections in April The elections saw the consolidation of a new party, Peru's Potential, led by Alejandro Toledo. The free-market economic policies in place since will not change in the coming years. The incoming government, which took office in July ofwill maintain strict macroeconomic discipline guided by a Fiscal Discipline Law that does not permit the deficit to be higher than 1.

The economic situation will be difficult, nevertheless. The Peruvian economy has been in a recession sincepartly due to poor fiscal management on the part of the former government and partly because of the Brazilian, Russian, and Asian economic troubles. The incoming government promises to reduce taxes and tariffs as a way of stimulating the economy and ensuring the 6 percent GDP growth economists say is needed to begin lowering poverty rates.

Toledo, who has a Ph. Job creation is an especially important priority, considering Peru's current under-and unemployment, and theyoung people joining the labor market each year. The government's principal source of revenue comes from taxes. A 15 percent tax is applied to personal income and a 30 percent tax is applied to business income. Peru has the world's third-highest tax on beer, after South Korea and Kenya, accounting for 75 percent of the price of 1 liter.Time zone: 7 A.

Longest distances: 1, kilometers miles from southeast to northwest; kilometers miles from northeast to southwest.

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Land boundaries: 5, kilometers 3, miles total boundary length; Bolivia kilometers miles ; Brazil 1, kilometers miles ; Chile kilometers 99 miles ; Colombia 1, kilometers miles ; Ecuador 1, kilometers miles. Peru is located on the western coast of South America, just south of the equator.

peru encyclopedia of the nations

With a total area of about 1, square kilometerssquare milesthe country is slightly smaller than the state of Alaska. Peru is divided into twenty-four departments and one constitutional province. Peru has two seasons that correspond to rainfall rather than to temperature.

Summer is from January through March and winter is during the remainder of the year. Because of extremes in topography, average temperatures vary greatly between regions. Despite being a desert area, these relatively moderate temperatures are credited to nearly constant cold air movement. Most rain and moisture originates from trade winds to the east, blowing across the Amazon Basin.

Because the mountains trap nearly all the rains, the coastal plain is relatively dry year-round, averaging less than 2. During the winter season, however, a nearly constant mist, the garuashrouds the coast. In extreme contrast, the eastern forests receive an average annual rainfall of centimeters inches ; in some years, these areas are inundated with up to centimeters inches. Peru is a country of geographic extremes. Consider, for example, that two canyons in Peru are each twice as deep as the Grand Canyon in the United States.

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Peru also has the highest navigable lake in the world and has some of the world's highest and most spectacular mountains. Off the Pacific Ocean shoreline is a trench as deep as the Andes Mountains are high, and the driest desert on earth is located in Peru.

La Costa, bordering the Pacific Ocean, is a 2,kilometer- 1,mile- long desert; it is only 16 kilometers 10 miles wide at one point, but it widens to about kilometers miles in both the north and the south.

La Selva covers roughly 60 percent of Peru. It is the rainforest region of the Amazon Basin, between the mountains of La Sierra and the eastern foothills. Peru has occasional volcanic activity and earthquakes from the effect of the offshore Nazca Tectonic Plate moving under the South American Plate, on which Peru sits.Toggle navigation. The Encyclopedia of the Nations is a complete source for detailed information about one hundred ninety three countries in the world, information about the United Nations and the associated agencies, and World Leaders.

There is a section that focuses on the history and the development of the United Nations, its structure and purpose, developments by each of the United Nation's generals, and the achievements in the fields such as security and peace between nations.

The detailed nation profiles are categorized by continent and alphabetically arranged and consist of information about each country such as the population, history, ethnic groups, culture, language, transportation, government structure, technology, and contain notes about museums, media, libraries, technology, and much more.

We also have information about national economies of most countries in AfricaAmericasAsia and the Pacificand Europe which include the overview of economy, economic sectors, agriculture, poverty and wealth, working conditions, imports, exports, manufacturing, and much more. Make sure to also vist Every Culture for detailed information about countries' cultures and Food By Country for recipes and other information for every country, and Press Reference for information about press in the World.It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombiain the east by Brazilin the southeast by Boliviain the south by Chileand in the south and west by the Pacific Ocean.

Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river. Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures. Ranging from the Norte Chico civilization starting in BCE, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the five cradles of civilizationto the Inca Empirethe largest state in the pre-Columbian Americas, the territory now including Peru has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 4th millennia BCE.

The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a viceroyalty that encompassed most of its South American territories, with its capital in Lima.

In the ensuing years, the country enjoyed relative economic and political stabilitywhich ended shortly before the War of the Pacific — with Chile. Throughout the 20th century, Peru endured armed territorial disputes, coups, social unrest, and internal conflictsas well as periods of stability and economic upswing. Alberto Fujimori was elected to the presidency in ; his government was credited with economically stabilizing Peru and successfully ending the Shining Path insurgency, though he was widely accused of human rights violations and suppression of political dissent.

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Fujimori left the presidency in and was charged with human rights violations and imprisoned until his pardon by President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski in Even after the president's regime, Fujimori's followers, called Fujimoristashave caused political turmoil for any opposing faction in power, even causing Pedro Pablo Kuczynski to resign in March The sovereign state of Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions.

Peru is a developing countryranking 82nd on the Human Development Index[10] with a high level of human development [11] with an upper middle income level [12] and a poverty rate around 19 percent.

Peru ranks high in social freedom ; [16] it is an active member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperationthe Pacific Alliancethe Trans-Pacific Partnership and the World Trade Organization ; and is considered as a middle power. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other indigenous languages.

This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilaso de la Vegason of an Inca princess and a conquistador.

The earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to approximately 12, BCE in the Huaca Prieta settlement. Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money.

The Cupisnique culture which flourished from around to BCE [27] along what is now Peru's Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture. On the coast, these included the civilizations of the ParacasNazcaWariand the more outstanding Chimu and Moche. The Moche, who reached their apogee in the first millennium CE, were renowned for their irrigation system which fertilized their arid terrain, their sophisticated ceramic pottery, their lofty buildings, and clever metalwork.

In the 15th century, the Incas emerged as a powerful state which, in the span of a century, formed the largest empire in the pre-Columbian Americas with their capital in Cusco.

Gradually, as early as the thirteenth century, they began to expand and incorporate their neighbors.

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Inca expansion was slow until about the middle of the fifteenth century, when the pace of conquest began to accelerate, particularly under the rule of the emperor Pachacuti. Pachacuti also promulgated a comprehensive code of laws to govern his far-flung empire, while consolidating his absolute temporal and spiritual authority as the God of the Sun who ruled from a magnificently rebuilt Cusco.

The official language of the empire was Quechua[36] although hundreds of local languages and dialects were spoken. The Spanish conquest of Peru was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

After years of preliminary exploration and military conflicts, it was the first step in a long campaign that took decades of fighting but ended in Spanish victory and colonization of the region known as the Viceroyalty of Peru with its capital at Limawhich was then known as "La Ciudad de los Reyes" The City of Kings.

The conquest of Peru led to spin-off campaigns throughout the viceroyalty as well as expeditions towards the Amazon Basin as in the case of Spanish efforts to quell Amerindian resistance. The indigenous population dramatically collapsed overwhelmingly due to epidemic diseases introduced by the Spanish as well as exploitation and socioeconomic change.

Peruvian bullion provided revenue for the Spanish Crown and fueled a complex trade network that extended as far as Europe and the Philippines. The expansion of a colonial administrative apparatus and bureaucracy paralleled the economic reorganization.

Peru - Overview of economy

With the conquest started the spread of Christianity in South America; most people were forcefully converted to Catholicismtaking only a generation to convert the population. They built churches in every city and replaced some of the Inca temples with churches, such as the Coricancha in the city of Cusco. The church employed the Inquisitionmaking use of torture to ensure that newly converted Catholics did not stray to other religions or beliefs.

Peruvian Catholicism follows the syncretism found in many Latin American countries, in which religious native rituals have been integrated with Christian celebrations. By the 18th century, declining silver production and economic diversification greatly diminished royal income.FLAG : The national flag consists of red, white, and red vertical stripes.

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peru encyclopedia of the nations

Movable holidays include Holy Thursday and Good Friday. Alexander, Yonah ed. Combating Terrorism: Strategies of Ten Countries. Ann Arbor, Mich. Alisky, Marvin. Historical Dictionary of Peru. Metuchen, N. Becker, David G. Princeton, N. Bingham, Hiram. New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, Cleaves, Peter S.

Agriculture, Bureaucracy, and Military Government in Peru.

Peru - Working conditions

Ithaca, N. Collier, David. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, Descola, Jean. Daily Life in Colonial Peru, — New York: Macmillan, Dobyns, Henry F.

Peru: A Cultural History. New York: Oxford University Press, Ferreira, Cesar. Culture and Customs of Peru. Westport, Conn. Figueroa, Adolfo. Capitalist Development and the Peasant Economy of Peru. New York: Cambridge University Press, Fisher, John Robert.Perucountry in western South America. Except for the Lake Titicaca basin in the southeast, its borders lie in sparsely populated zones. The boundaries with Colombia to the northeast and Brazil to the east traverse lower ranges or tropical forests, whereas the borders with Bolivia to the southeast, Chile to the south, and Ecuador to the northwest run across the high Andes.

To the west, territorial watersreaching miles km into the Pacific Oceanare claimed by Peru. Peru is essentially a tropical country, with its northern tip nearly touching the Equator. Despite its tropical location, a great diversity of climates, ways of life, and economic activities is brought about by the extremes of elevation and by the southwest winds that sweep in across the cold Peru Current or Humboldt Currentwhich flows along its Pacific shoreline.

The immense difficulties of travel posed by the Andes have long impeded national unity.

peru encyclopedia of the nations

Iquitoson the upper Amazonlies only about miles km northeast of Limathe capital, but, before the airplane, travelers between the cities often chose a 7,mile 11,km trip via the Amazon, the Atlantic and Caribbeanthe Isthmus of Panamaand the Pacific, rather than the shorter mountain route.

The name Peru is derived from a Quechua Indian word implying land of abundance, a reference to the economic wealth produced by the rich and highly organized Inca civilization that ruled the region for centuries. Favourite destinations for international travelers include Machu Picchua site of ancient Inca ruins located about 50 miles 80 km northwest of Cuzcoand museums housing artifacts excavated from ancient tombs in northern coastal Peru.

Peru is traditionally described in terms of three broad longitudinal regions: the arid Costa on the west; the rugged Sierra, or Andes, system in the centre; and the wet and forested Amazonia—the tropical Amazon Basin—on the east.

The coastal plain can be readily divided into three parts—north, central, and south—on the basis of the amount of level land and the distance between the Andean ranges and the sea.

Generally speaking, the amount of level coastal land diminishes from north to south. In the northern region, from Ecuador to Chimbotethe plain is typically some 20 to 30 miles 30 to 50 km wide, with a maximum width of more than 90 miles km in the Sechura Desert south of Piura. The central coastal region, which stretches from Chimbote to Nazca, is narrower than the northern region and is characterized by areas of rough hills that extend from the Andes to the shores of the ocean.

From Nazca southward to the Chilean border the coast is for the most part lined by low mountains; the southern valleys are narrow, and only in scattered spots are level lands found near the ocean. The Peruvian Andes are typical of mountain regions of the Pacific Rim: they are young in geologic terms, and their continuing uplift is manifested by frequent earthquakes and much instability. Three main backbones protrude from the Peruvian Andes; they are commonly called the cordilleras Occidental, Central, and Oriental, although these designations are not used within Peru.

Slopes are relatively gentle in northern Peru, and maximum elevations seldom exceed 16, feet about 5, metres. The Andes in central Peru are higher and more rugged. The ranges of the central zone form particularly difficult barriers to movement. The main pass east of Lima, for instance, is at an elevation of more than 15, feet 4, metres —higher than many of the peaks in the north.

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Many of the mountains of central Peru are snowcapped and are a popular attraction for climbers and tourists. In southern Peru the character of the Andes changes to that of a high plateau region; this is the Punawith vast tablelands and elevations between 13, and 16, feet about 4, and 5, metres.

Scattered peaks, with elevations of up to about 21, feet 6, metresprotrude above the broad southern plateaus. Beginning northwest of Arequipamany of the southern peaks form a volcanic chain that stretches into northern Chile, including Ampato, Huacla Huacla, and Misti.

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